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THE IMAGING & VISION HANDBOOK 2016/2017

The new edition of STEMMER IMAGING’s vision handbook covers numerous basic topics from all areas of imaging and machine vision on around 450 pages. This preview version (English / German) gives you a first impression of this highly praised reference guide. To get the full version please register by entering your e-mail address.
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Imaging & Vision Handbook 2016/17 - Preview

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The new edition of STEMMER IMAGING’s vision handbook 2016/2017 covers numerous basic topics from all areas of imaging and machine vision on around 450 pages. This preview version gives you a first impression of this highly praised reference guide. To get the full version please register by entering your e-mail address.

▹ ▹VISION SYSTEMS:

▹ ▹VISION SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGY APPLICATION AREAS FOR VISION SYSTEMS VISION SYSTEMS systems include high-speed recording and analysis of special processes, or data collection in scientific experiments. These are termed off-line systems as there is no real-time decision or data transmission needed. 1.1.1 Product verification Verifying that a product, assembly or package has been correctly produced is a major application for on-line vision systems. Applications range from pure presence checks (for example ring pulls on cans) to checking that package seals are correctly placed. The verification of printing accuracy is another example of this type of application. A component being measured for accurate hole geometry Sealant being inspected on an engine assembly Other example applications include: ■■ Blister pack verification ■■ Solder joint verification ■■ Print and packaging verification ■■ Cable wiring verification ■■ Moulded part verification ■■ Bottle cap and seal inspection ■■ PCB assembly verification ■■ Assembly verification A laser can be used to deliver accurate 3D measurements as is shown above subpixel accurate measurement tools with suitable lenses and the correct illumination enable modern vision systems to deliver precise, resilient and repeatable measurements. For measurement applications particular care needs to be taken to ensure machine vibration and product location does not cause incorrect errors. Can opener verification Checking the type and quantity of water aerators 1.1.3 Flaw detection Flaws such as contamination, scratches, cracks, discolouration or burn marks may be caused by slight variations in the manufacturing process and manifest themselves as minute variations in the form of the item, but can have severe effects. These types of defects usually appear at random intervals and in varying positions on the product, therefore flaw detection tools have to look for changes in colour or texture and sometimes have to compare the differences between the object under inspection and a known 'golden template'. A few examples are shown here: Lines on structured tiles show surface damages. Using vision these defects can be distinguished from usual irregular patterns. Hose clip verification Fastener presence verification 1.1.2 Dimensional measurement The accurate measurement of component dimensions ensuring they are within predefined manufacturing tolerances is an extremely important use of vision. For these applications image quality and resolution is as important as the algorithm, as only the combination of Labels are checked for flaws created during the printing and any subsequent processing of the product. Flaws can occur as a result of printing errors, or damage due to mechanical problems on the production line. Various different measurements being taken of a bottle top Spring measurement Any flaws in the threads of a mechanical component could cause later assembly problems and could even result in the damage of a larger assembly. The application has detected problems with this thread. IRELAND Phone: +353 65 704 200 0 POLAND Phone: +48 664 921 922 SWEDEN NORWAY ICELAND Phone: +46 8 555 110 00 SWITZERLAND Phone: +41 55 415 90 90 UNITED KINGDOM Phone: +44 1252 780000 7

-IP2 +IP2 -IP1 +IP1 Select Range Gardasoft Vision PP612 LED Lighting Controller PWR HDD -IP2 +IP2 -IP1 +IP1 Select Range Gardasoft Vision PP612 LED Lighting Controller -IP2 +IP2 -IP1 +IP1 Select Range Gardasoft Vision PP612 LED Lighting Controller Reset ▹ ▹VISION SYSTEMS: TECHNOLOGY THE INSPECTION PROCESS VISION SYSTEMS Any defects present on sheet metal could mean that the whole batch might have to be rejected. This example shows how vision inspection can be used to detect any dents that would not be visible to the human eye. A simple inspection application normally consists of the following steps: 1.2.1 Acquiring the image The goal is to set the system up such that it will acquire the best possible image that highlights the defect. This may require a combination of specialist lights and filters. It must be remembered that a camera is not as flexible as the human eye so ambient lighting is often unacceptable. Adjustments to the system such as setting the time of the camera trigger, adjusting the camera exposure to reduce motion blur, or taking a decision on whether lighting control will be required, might be necessary. 1.2 The inspection process As the complexity of inspection applications can vary considerably it is important that the chosen solution fits the project requirements. A high level of flexibility will allow easy adaptations for new tasks that might occur later. Considering possible future needs should form part of the specification phase. 1 1.5 0.3 0.5 Reject Mechanism TAMRON 25779 JAPAN Smart Camera Presence detector Trigger Reject signal Digital I/O 1.2.2 Locating the product Once the image is captured, the item under inspection needs to be located within the image. It is desirable that the object is in the same location and orientation to the camera for each inspection as this can simplify the inspection. Using a mechanical system to do this is ideal, however, in many applications this is not possible or the mechanical system does not remove all movement. To deal with this the first step is to locate the part in the image. This is often termed creating a fixture or anchor point and usually involves finding two edges or two patterns on the item, such that all further inspection tools can be referenced to these features. Depending on the size of the expected range more time may be needed to accurately locate the object. 1.2.3 Inspection Once the image is located the inspection tools are applied. Common inspection tools are discussed later in this chapter, however the complexity of the inspection phase can vary significantly which in turn can cause the inspection time to change. This diagram shows a simple manufacturing inspection using a single smart camera to inspect the nozzle of a spray can. Lighting Controllers 1.2.4 Decision and communication The decision is made after all the results from the deployed tools have been evaluated. Once the result is known the physical pass/fail line can be set to the relevant level, or in some applications this reject output needs to be synchronised to operate as the product passes further down the production line. With modern PLCs now supporting serial and Ethernet protocols the other communi cation method can provide result data to a PLC to make the required action. 1.3 Project feasibility More complex inspections might involve multiple cameras and multiple targets. In this example, lighting controllers are used to adjust the lighting levels at each inspection station. The first step when embarking on any project is to make sure that the proposed solution is feasible. If you have some experience with vision systems this may be quite straightforward, but if your knowledge is limited, you may need assistance to estimate the technical and financial implications. We can help with sample evaluations and we also run 8 STEMMER IMAGING www.stemmer-imaging.com BENELUX Phone: +31 575 798888 DENMARK Phone: +45 33 73 00 00 FINLAND BALTICS Phone: +358 9 43 555 00 FRANCE Phone: +33 1 45069560 GERMANY AUSTRIA Phone: +49 89 80902-0

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    Now THAT’S Smart Vision Lights is

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    With more than 30 years of experien

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    Finding the remedy Struggling to ma

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    Perfect resolution, made simple Lib

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    ▹ ▹APPENDIX COPYRIGHT APPENDIX

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    THE STEMMER IMAGING MACHINE VISION

STEMMER IMAGING

Imaging & Vision Handbook 2016/17 - Preview
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