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THE IMAGING & VISION HANDBOOK 2016/2017

The new edition of STEMMER IMAGING’s vision handbook covers numerous basic topics from all areas of imaging and machine vision on around 450 pages. This preview version (English / German) gives you a first impression of this highly praised reference guide. To get the full version please register by entering your e-mail address.
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Imaging & Vision Handbook 2016/17 - Preview

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The new edition of STEMMER IMAGING’s vision handbook 2016/2017 covers numerous basic topics from all areas of imaging and machine vision on around 450 pages. This preview version gives you a first impression of this highly praised reference guide. To get the full version please register by entering your e-mail address.

▹ ▹ILLUMINATION:

▹ ▹ILLUMINATION: TECHNOLOGY LED AND OLED ILLUMINATION ILLUMINATION conducted away via the resin and the metallic contacts. Therefore, the air surrounding the LEDs and the PCB to which they are attached heat up. By reducing the use of raw materials, the housing often becomes a purely structural shell, offering little or no physical contact with the LEDs which leads to very poor heat dissipation. By attempting to reduce the cost of the manufacturing process, important features, such as machined fins on the housing which increase the surface area, the addition of thermal bonding between the PCB and the housing, or the use of graded batches of diodes, are neglected. Quality illumination products designed for machine vision applications are designed with thermal management in mind from the outset: By manufacturing the LED housings from solid aluminium, heat can be dissipated away from the LEDs. This can be further enhanced by the addition of a thermally conductive layer that allows direct conduction between the PCB and the housing. Fins can be machined onto the housing to increase the surface area, which allows greater heat transfer into the surrounding air. By using graded high quality diodes, the total efficiency of each LED making up the illuminator can be matched, ensuring a more consistent illumination and the reduction of hot LED components which stress the thermal management and cause early failure due to localised excessive heat generation. any reduction in the performance occurs. We can further improve the situation by adding fins to the metal extrusion which increases the surface area and hence the heat transfers into the surrounding air. In situations where either the ambient temperature or the total amount of heat generated by the LEDs is very high, we can increase the total amount of heat transferred away from the unit by forcing the air over it. The addition of a fan also has the added advantage of removing any concentrations of hot still air (hot spots), which would otherwise cause increases in temperature. Advanced thermal management techniques There is a limit to the maximum amount of heat that can be transferred away from the LEDs using only passive techniques. For applications where the heat from an LED becomes a serious problem, other techniques are required. These active techniques are particularly applicable to high intensity line light illumination systems, and the following examples show the various methods that can be employed. There is a limit to the amount of heat that can be transferred away from the unit in a given time using air alone. Liquid coolants offer a more efficient method of heat transfer, as they provide better heat conduction than air. As is shown in the drawing, the coolant can be directed very close to the LEDs to maximise the energy transfer. This can be achieved using a self-contained pump which can also be situated some distance away from the light itself. The diagram above shows a simple form of line light with no cooling. By changing the simple folded metal housing for an extruded aluminium design, the generated heat can more easily be transferred due to aluminium's good thermal transmission properties and its increased surface area. Further improvements can be made to the design by mounting the unit on a substantial metal platform. In this case the LED array needs to heat up a large volume of metal before any damage is done to the LEDs or If necessary a refrigeration unit can be included into the coolant system. Using active cooling, care has to be taken that no condensing water is generated on the housing that would cause irreversible damage to the illuminator. There are some manufacturing and inspection environments where forced air or liquid cooling are forbidden due to safety regulations. In IRELAND Phone: +353 65 704 200 0 POLAND Phone: +48 664 921 922 SWEDEN NORWAY ICELAND Phone: +46 8 555 110 00 SWITZERLAND Phone: +41 55 415 90 90 UNITED KINGDOM Phone: +44 1252 780000 41

▹ ▹ILLUMINATION: TECHNOLOGY STRUCTURED LIGHT ILLUMINATION these environments the only active cooling technology that can be employed is thermo electric cooling (TEC) using Peltier elements. When a current is passed through a TEC device, a temperature differential is created. This effect transfers heat from one side of the TEC to the other. One of the most important features of this technique is that the exact amount of cooling can be tightly controlled by varying the current. TEC cooling is especially suitable to reach a predefined local temperature. Additional active cooling is necessary to discharge heat from the complete system. perfectly circular beam. These use integrated micro-optics and collimators to produce a circular profile. Laser lines can be generated using cylindrical lenses, raster, or Powell lenses. Cylindrical lenses produce a Gaussian light distribution where the diameter of the lens affects the fan angle and hence the line length. In this case the ends of the line fade out and the intensity is nonuniform. These lasers are not ideal for machine vision applications and should be avoided. 2.3 Structured light 2.3.1 Laser illumination Laser diodes are based on the same principle as LEDs, but due to additional optical resonators they produce narrowband coherent light. Projecting a laser line or pattern onto an object and using a camera at a known angle to capture the result reveals displacement of the beam so that this can be measured to provide height information. In addition to points and lines many other patterns such as crosses, circles, squares, dot matrices, multiple lines, or grids can be used. These are created by means of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) which are based on the principle of light diffraction by small micro structures. Depending on the light pattern either triangulation, light section or a grid projection should be used. 2.3.1.1 Laser light sources Most single point laser beams have an elliptical profile, but it is possible to construct a diode laser with an ellipticity of close to 1, with an almost For machine vision it is important to have a line with consistent intensity across the line. Here either raster or Powell lenses should be used. Powell lenses offer the best profile, while raster lenses offer a compromise between price and even illumination, especially for close-up applications. For close range applications, the fact that on raster lenses the point structure of the laser is not well resolved does not cause an intensity ripple and makes them particularly suitable. At greater distances however, the camera 'sees' this structure. If this affects measurements or where measurements at longer distances are needed, a Powell lens should be used. These lenses are available with fan angles from 10° to 90°. Circular beam profile Raster lens profile ‘pseudo-Gaussian’ profile 42 STEMMER IMAGING www.stemmer-imaging.com BENELUX Phone: +31 575 798888 DENMARK Phone: +45 33 73 00 00 FINLAND BALTICS Phone: +358 9 43 555 00 FRANCE Phone: +33 1 45069560 GERMANY AUSTRIA Phone: +49 89 80902-0

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    THE IMAGING & VISION HANDBOOK IMAGI

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    Now THAT’S Smart Vision Lights is

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    ▹ ▹ILLUMINATION: PRODUCTS SMART

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    ▹ ▹ILLUMINATION: PRODUCTS Z-LAS

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    With more than 30 years of experien

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    ▹ ▹OPTICS: TECHNOLOGY SELECTION

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    ▹ ▹OPTICS: TECHNOLOGY IMAGE QUA

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    MIDOPT FILTERS Where Image Quality

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    MACHINE VISION CAMERAS AND LENSES R

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    Schneider-Kreuznach Trust is good.

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    Telecentric Lenses CCD Lenses PRECI

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    NEW! M111FM-Series 1.1" Image Circl

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    Finding the remedy Struggling to ma

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    JAI.COM Here we GO again…! New! G

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    Perfect resolution, made simple Lib

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    SECURITY | SURVEILLANCE | VIDEO CON

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    IMAGING ANYWHERE & EVERYWHERE Our n

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    It‘s what you make it. Unlimited

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    GetXML Read registers Write registe

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    C 16 8 4 1.8 1 1.5 TV LENS 50mm ▹

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    ▹ ▹APPENDIX COPYRIGHT APPENDIX

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    THE STEMMER IMAGING MACHINE VISION

STEMMER IMAGING

Imaging & Vision Handbook 2016/17 - Preview
Handbuch der Bildverarbeitung 2016 / 2017 - Preview

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