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THE IMAGING & VISION HANDBOOK 2016/2017

The new edition of STEMMER IMAGING’s vision handbook covers numerous basic topics from all areas of imaging and machine vision on around 450 pages. This preview version (English / German) gives you a first impression of this highly praised reference guide. To get the full version please register by entering your e-mail address.
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Imaging & Vision Handbook 2016/17 - Preview

  • Text
  • Sensor
  • Imaging
  • Illumination
  • Lenses
  • Lens
  • Applications
  • Products
  • Cameralink
  • Scan
  • Software
The new edition of STEMMER IMAGING’s vision handbook 2016/2017 covers numerous basic topics from all areas of imaging and machine vision on around 450 pages. This preview version gives you a first impression of this highly praised reference guide. To get the full version please register by entering your e-mail address.

▹ ▹ILLUMINATION:

▹ ▹ILLUMINATION: TECHNOLOGY LIGHT PROPAGATION ILLUMINATION 2.5.3.3 Focused light There are some applications where light needs to be focussed into a point or along a line. The main uses for this technique are to either concentrate the light into a smaller area, thus increasing its intensity such as would be the case for high-speed applications, or to illuminate only a specific part of an object. being to direct the beam onto a parabolic concave mirror with the light source at the focal point. The light reflected by the mirror is then collimated making the light rays parallel. In machine vision applications, the light from a single point source is passed through a collimating lens. Collimated light is sometimes said to be 'focused at infinity'. The most common source of collimated illumination is the sun, which, because of its great distance from earth, produces rays that are considered parallel, although in reality they are slightly divergent due to diffraction in the atmosphere. Focusing lens Focusing lens Even light distribution Focused beam A common application for this technique would be a line scan web inspection, where a thin, highly focused beam of light is required across the whole width of the web. The illumination must be able to provide high intensity, even illumination for the line scan camera. The normal method would involve using an array of high intensity LEDs to provide very uniform illumination along the line. A focusing/rod lens is then used in front of the LEDs to focus the light to a fine line. Another reason to use a focused light is to control how the light strikes the target. The example of an inspection of pins on an electrical component shows this in action. Collimated illumination has uses both in front of the object - front lighting - and behind the object - backlighting, and is useful because it delivers images with strong contrast and sharp edges. As an example a telecentric condenser illumination produces collimated light and can be used as backlight illumination enabling the reproduction of objects with blurred edges with clear contrast. 2.5.3.5 Structured lighting This technique projects accurate patterns onto a target and then measures the displacement or distortion in order to calculate the shape, size or position of the object. In the easiest form, a line is projected onto a target and observed under a known angle from a camera. The distortions in the line can then be translated into height variations. This technique is often referred to as laser triangulation. Structured illumi nation is often used to obtain height information and is especially useful for 3D inspection tasks. Laserline generator Using this technique, the main body of the component is not illuminated and the focused beam only illuminates the electrical contacts. This makes the subsequent inspection much simpler as there is no extraneous information in the image that would otherwise need to be removed in software. Focus adjustment Focused beam Focusing lens Component Laser sheet Camera Output The diagram (left) shows the general arrangement of a laser when used for a 3D profiling application. Uses for this technique include: inspection of food items to check for correct volume or product deformations and foreign object inclusion. It can also be used to check the surface profile of objects against known good examples or a golden template to ensure perfect product quality. 2.5.3.4 Collimated illumination Collimation is a method of controlling illumination so that the light rays are parallel. Light can be collimated in a number of ways, the easiest To obtain the most accurate 3D information, very narrow and sharp illuminated lines are required. This is usually achieved by using laser technology or structured LED illumination. In addition a narrow pass IRELAND Phone: +353 65 704 200 0 POLAND Phone: +48 664 921 922 SWEDEN NORWAY ICELAND Phone: +46 8 555 110 00 SWITZERLAND Phone: +41 55 415 90 90 UNITED KINGDOM Phone: +44 1252 780000 51

▹ ▹ILLUMINATION: TECHNOLOGY SURFACE CONSIDERATIONS ILLUMINATION filter is fixed on the camera, only transmitting the reflected laser or LED light with no ambient light. The image shows a regular squared pattern being projected onto a component to allow a comparison with a sample, or for accurate measurements to be taken. Structured lighting is also widely used in alignment applications where markers are required to adjust tools or components and is also employed in medical applications such as the placement of patients for X-ray or radiation. within the diffuse circle of illumination. A larger light would be required to illuminate the entire surface. Surface reflectivity - scattering: If the object tends to scatter the light as it does with dull or matt finishes, the light that hits the surface will be dispersed in all directions, leading to a much more evenly distributed pattern of illumination. The image shows the most basic set-up, where light is scattered evenly across the entire surface. Output Scattering surface 2.5.4 Surface considerations The way that the illumination interacts with the target surface is of paramount importance in obtaining a high quality image. Surface reflectivity - shiny: If the surface of the target object is shiny, special care needs to be taken when selecting the type of illumination. A spot illuminator will cover the target in light, but will create numerous reflections that may adversely affect the resulting image. In the example of a flat shiny surface shown here, the light will create a localised, intense spot of little use for further software interpretation. Reflective surface The next drawing shows how changing to a larger and more diffuse light will create a far better image, as long as the area of interest lies Reflective surface Output Output Surface geometry - angular: If the surface of the target object is angular, shadows may be produced. To counteract this, the object will need to be lit from different angles. In cases where only a single feature on the surface is of interest, it may be necessary to concentrate the light from a parti cular angle in order to obtain the best possible results. Surface geometry - undulating: The most difficult surface to illuminate correctly is one that has an undulating, shiny surface. Examples of this could be ball bearings, polished components, or foil wrappings. These types of surfaces will produce multiple, direct reflections that would make subsequent image analysis very difficult and processor intensive. The best technique in this situation is to use a form of advanced, coaxial or dome illumination that floods the entire surface with even, diffuse light from all angles. 2.5.5 Illumination control Most illumination needs to be controlled in some way, whether it be simply turning the light on and off, or controlling how intense the illumination is. It was once common for engineers to develop their own lighting controllers, but this is time consuming and costly. Today, there are a range of off-the-shelf products available that are able to control nearly all aspects of a lighting set-up. 2.5.5.1 Strobe illumination Strobing (sometimes referred to as pulsing) is the technique of activating a light only for a short period of time, and there are a number of reasons why this is done. Prolonging the life of the illumination: No matter which type of light source is used, all of them have a finite lifespan which can be dramatically extended by activating them only when required. For 52 STEMMER IMAGING www.stemmer-imaging.com BENELUX Phone: +31 575 798888 DENMARK Phone: +45 33 73 00 00 FINLAND BALTICS Phone: +358 9 43 555 00 FRANCE Phone: +33 1 45069560 GERMANY AUSTRIA Phone: +49 89 80902-0

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    THE IMAGING & VISION HANDBOOK IMAGI

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    Welcome to the 2016/17 issue of our

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    ▹ ▹APPENDIX COPYRIGHT APPENDIX

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    THE STEMMER IMAGING MACHINE VISION

STEMMER IMAGING

Imaging & Vision Handbook 2016/17 - Preview
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